介词讲解

 时间:2018-08-08 06:03:45 贡献者:101913bd

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初中英语语法介词j讲解ppt
初中英语语法介词j讲解ppt

1.表示地点位置的介词 1)at ,in, on, to, for at (1)表示在小地方; (2)表示“在……附近,旁边” in (1)表示 在大地方; (2)表示“在…范围之内”. on 表示毗邻,接壤,“在……上面”. to 表示在……范围外,不强调是否接壤;或“到……” 2)above, over, on 在……上 above 指在……上方,不强调是否垂直,与 below 相对; over 指垂直的上方,与 under 相对,但 over 与物体有一定的空间,不直接 接触. on 表示某物体上面并与之接触. The bird is flying above my head. There is a bridge over the river. He put his watch on the desk. 3)below, under 在……下面 under 表示在…正下方 below 表示在……下,不一定在正下方 There is a cat under the table. Please write your name below the line. 4)in front of, in the front of 在……前面 in front of…意思是 “在……前面”,指甲物在乙物之前,两者互不包括; 其反义词是 behind(在……的后面).

There are some flowers in front of the house. (房子前面有些花卉.) in the front of 意思是“在…..的前部”,即甲物在乙物的内部.反义词是 at the back of…(在……范围内的后部). There is a blackboard in the front of our classroom. 我们的教室前边有一块黑板. Our teacher stands in the front of the classroom. 我们的老师站在教室前.(老师在教室里) 5)beside, behind beside 表示在……旁边 behind 表示在……后面2.表示时间的介词 1)in , on, at 在……时 in 表示较长时间,如世纪、朝代、时代、年、季节、月及一般(非特 指)的早、中、晚等. 如 in the 20th century, in the 1950s, in 1989, in summer, in January, in the morning, in one’s life , in one’s thirties 等. on 表示具体某一天及其早、中、晚. 如 on May 1st, on Monday, on New Year’s Day, on a cold night in January, on a fine morning, on Sunday afternoon 等. at 表示某一时刻或较短暂的时间,或泛指圣诞节,复活节等. 如 at 3:20, at this time of year, at the beginning of, at the end of …, at the

age of …, at Christmas, at night, at noon, at this moment 等. 注意:在 last, next, this, that, some, every 等词之前一律不用介词.如: We meet every day. 2)in, after 在……之后 “in +段时间”表示将来的一段时间以后; “after+段时间”表示过去的一段时间以后; “after+将来的时间点”表示将来的某一时刻以后. 3)from, since 自从…… from 仅说明什么时候开始,不说明某动作或情况持续多久; since 表示某动作或情况持续至说话时刻,通常与完成时连用.since 表 示"自(某具体时间)以来",常用作完成时态谓语 的时间状语. since liberation (1980) 自从解放 (1980 年) 以来 They have been close friends since childhood. 他们从小就是好朋友. (1)since the war 是指"自从战争结束以来",若指"自从战争开始以来 ",须说"since the beginning of the war". (2)不要将 since 与 after 混淆. 比较:He has worked here since 1965. (指一段时间,强调时间段)自 从 1965 年以来, 他一直在这儿工作. He began to work here after 1965. (指一点时间,强调时间点)从 1965 年以后,他开始在这儿工作.

4)after, behind 在……之后 after 主要用于表示时间; behind 主要用于表示位置. 时间名词前介词用法口诀 年前周前要用 in 具体日子却要用 on 遇到几号要用 on 上午下午又是 in 要说某日上下午 用 on 换 in 记清楚 午夜黄昏用 at 黎明用它也不错 at 用在时分前 说“差”可要用上 to 说"过''要用 past 3.表示运动方向的介词: across, through 通过,穿过 across 表示横过,即从物体表面通过,与 on 有关,为二维 through 穿过,即从物体内部穿过,与 in 有关,为三维.过 4.表示“在……之间”的介词:表 示 “ 在 … … 之 间 ” 的 介 词 在 英 语 中 属 于 方 位 介 词 , 如 in front of ,behind ,on, in, near, under, up

between, among between 指在两个人或两个事物之间; among 指在三个或三个以上的人或事物之间. 5.表示其他意义的介词 1)on ,about 关于 on 表示这本书,这篇文章或演说是严肃的,或学术性的,可供专门研究 这一问题的人阅读; about 表示内容较为普通,不那么正式. 2)by, with, in 表示方法、手段、工具 by 以……方法、手段或泛指某种交通工具;eg: by bike, by bus, by the way, by this way with 表示用 …工具、手段,一般接具体的工具和手段; in 表示用…方式,用…语言(语调、笔墨、颜色)等;eg: in English, in Chinese, 3)except, besides 除了 except 除……之外,不包括在内; besides 除……之外,包括在内. Except for Mr. Wang, we went to see the film.(王先生没去) Besides Mr. Wang, we also went to see the film.(王先生也去了) 三.巩固 练习 1. Taiwan is in_______ the southeast of China.(in, on, to) 2. Go ____on_____ the bridge ___to______ the river, you’ll find the

shop.(across, through; over, above) 3. I go to school ______at____7:30 every morning.(in, on, at) 4. He would like to meet her ______at____8:00 and 9:00 tomorrow morning.(between, among ) 5. The Greens have lived in China _____for___ three years. (in, for, after) 6. We go to school every day ___on_____ Saturday and Sunday.(except, besides) 7. He wrote the letter _________ ink.(by, with ,in ) 8. She returned to her country _____for____five years.(in, after, for) 9. There is a big tree _________ our classroom.(after, behind) 10. I usually go to work _________ bike.(by, on, with) 1. There’s something _______ her that I really don’t like. A. with B. forC. to D. about 2. I was angry _______ him for keeping me waiting. A. with B. toC. about D. on 3. _______ going to French evening classes twice a week she does yoga on Wednesdays . A. Because of B. ExceptC. Besides D. But for 4. _______ cooking, writing and running the farm, she was very busy.

A. Among B. BetweenC. Over D. As 5. _______ one old lady, the bus was empty. A. Except B. Except forC. But D. Besides 6. They promise that the work would all be finished _______ next week. A. until B. inC. by D. to 7. We didn’t live together. We kept in touch _______ writing often. A. with B. ofC. on D. by 8. It was very kind of her. She insisted _______ her car to us. A. to lend B. lendingC. on lending D. in lending 9. We’ve talked a lot _______ cars. What about trains? A. of B. withC. about D. in 10. “How long have you been here?”“_______ the end of last month.” A. In B. ByC. At D. Since 11. The chemistry teacher required the students _______ more attention _______ the lab clean . A. to pay, to keep B. to paying, to keepingC. to pay, to keeping D. paying, keeping 12. “Is your car equal _______ hers in speed?”“No, mine is faster. But my old one equals _______ hers in speed." A. to, to B. \, \ C. to, \ D. \, to 13. This exam is very important for her. She won’t go home ______ the

exam. A. until after B. after untilC. until D. from 14. This suit fits me well _______ the trousers are too long. A. only B. except forC. except that D. except 15. After a quick dinner, they set off ______ car and made ______ the nearest town. A. by, to B. in, toC. by, for D. in, for [编辑本段] 其它常用介词 介词在英语词汇中所占比例很小 ,但它们的用法却非常灵活 ,复杂 . 下 列为常用介词及含义: 1)about 关于,附近,大约,周围,随身. I have bought a book about Shakespearean. 我买了一本有关莎士比亚的书. There are about fifteen trees in the picture. 图片里大约有十五棵树. 2)above 在.上,高出,以上,超过,在...上游. The plane is flying above the clouds. 飞机在云上飞行. I think the man is above sixty years old. 我想那人有六十多岁了. 3)across 横过,对面,交叉,在...的对面.

Can you swim across the river? 你能游过河吗? We live across the street. 我们住在街的对面. 4)after 在...后面,依照. He went home after school. 他放学后就回家了. Read after me, please. 请跟我朗读. 5)against 撞到,靠着,反对,违背, The car hit against the tree. 汽车撞了树. He is standing against the wall. 他靠墙站着. 6)along 沿着,顺着. They are walking along the river. 他们沿着河行走. 7)among 在...当中.(三者或三者以上) He is the tallest among them. 他是他们当中个子最高的. 8)around 在...的周围,在...那一边. They sat around the table talking the news.

他们绕桌而坐谈论新闻. There is a drugstore around the corner. 拐角处有一家药店. 9)as 作为. He doesn't like people treat him as a child. 他不喜欢人们把他当小孩子对待. 10)at 在...时刻,在...点钟,在...岁时, 向,在...之中,按...速度,值(卖)...钱, 在...(强调地点) He always gets up at six in the morning. 他时常早上六点钟起床. He shot at the bird but missed it. 他向鸟射击,但是没射中. The car goes at eighty miles an hour. 汽车以每小时八十公里的速度行驶. 11)before 在...的前面(位置),在...之前(时间) He took a picture before the car. 他在汽车前照了张照片. He can't finish his work before supper. 晚饭前他完不成工作. 12)behind 在...的后面(位置), 落后于,不如, 迟于,晚于(时间) Are there any brooms behind the door.

门后有扫帚吗? All of us are behind him in mathematics. 我们数学都不如他. 13)below 在...之下,低于, There are four lights below the ceiling. 天花板下面有四盏灯. The murderer run away below the police's eyes. 杀人犯从警察眼皮底下跑了. 14)beside 在...的旁边,在...之外,与...相比. He found the body beside the river. 他在河边发现了尸体. Beside yours, my computer is too slow. 与你的计算机速度相比,我的就慢多了. 15)besides 除...之外, 还有... We are all here besides Bowe. 除鲍外,我们也都来了. 16)between 在...两者之间, The relations between the two countries has improved since then. 两国的关系从那以后得到了改善. 17)beyond 在...那边, The shop you are looking for is beyond the street, you can't miss it. 你要找的商店在街的那边,你不会找不到的.

18)but 除去. He has nothing but money. 他除钱以外什么都没有. 19)by 被..., 在...的近旁 , 在...之前, 不迟于, 以...为手段. The classroom was cleaned by the students. 教室由学生们打扫干净了. Miss Lucy came to China by air. 露西小姐是乘飞机来中国的. 20)down 沿着...望下. She walked down the street. 她沿着街道走. 21)during 在...期间,在...时候. During the holiday, we went to the south. 我们假期去了南方. 22)except 除...之外. He knows nothing except English. 他除英语以外什么都不知道. 23)for 为..., 因为..., 至于... . He works for this company. 他为这家公司工作. She came back to the classroom for she had left her books in the classroom.

她返回到教室是因为把书留在了那里. 24)from 从..., 来自..., 因为. Where are you from? 你是哪里人? He died from an accident. 他死于一场事故. 25)in 在..., 在...之内,从事于..., 按照..., 穿着. He was born in 1992. 他生于 1992 年. I could finish the program in two weeks. 我可以用两周时间完成这个项目. He spend less time in reading. 他读书时间很少. The man in black jacket is our teacher. 穿黑夹克的那个人是我们的老师. 26)like 象...,如同. The twins are like their father. 双胞胎像他们的父亲. 27)near 靠近. There are some flowers near the house. 房子附近有一些花. 28)of ...的,属于.

This is a map of China. 这是一张中国地图. 29)off 离开...,在...之外. The young man got off the train quickly. 那个年青人很快下了火车. I live in a village a little way off the main road. 我住在离大路不远的一个村庄里. 30)on 在...之上. My book is on the table. 我的书在桌子上. 31)out of 从...出来,在...之外. The dog run out of the house. 狗从房子里跑出来. 32)outside ... 外边. They are waiting outside the gate. 他们在门外等着. 33)over 在...之上,遍于...之上,越过. There is a light over the desk. 桌子上方有盏灯. He is over sixty years old. 他有六十多岁. 34)past 越过...,过...,超越.

The students walked past the post office. 学生们走过了邮局. It is ten past two. 现在是两点十分. 35)round 围着...,绕过...,在...周围. We sat round the table. 我们围着桌子坐下. The earth goes round the sun. 地球绕着太阳转. 36)since 自... 以后,自...以来. He has made great progress in English since he came into the college. 从他来到大学后,他的英语有了很大进步. 37)through 经过...,穿过.(立体层面) They went through the forest. 他们穿过了森林. 38)throughout 遍及...,在各处. The police searched for the criminal throughout the mountain. 警察搜山寻找犯人. 39)till 直到...,在...以前. He didn't come back till eleven o'clock. 他直到十一点钟才回来. We'll be home till six.

六点以前我们都会在家. 40)to 到...,向...,趋于. How long is it from here to the station? 从这儿到车站有多远? 41)under 在...之下,低于. There are some footballs under the bed. 床底下有几颗足球. These students are under seventeen years old. 这些学生们不到十七岁. 42)until 直到,在...以前, Please wait for us until we come back. 请等着我们回来. It was not until last week that I handed in mathematics paper. 直到上周,我才交了数学论文. 43)up 在...上面,在...上. He went up the stairs. 他上了楼梯. 44)upon 在...之上,迫近. It's not polite to look down upon him. 蔑视他是不礼貌的. 45)within 在...之内. You must finish the work within two weeks.

你必须两周内完成这项工作. 46)without 没有,不,在...之外. We can't do it better without your help. 没有你的帮助,我们就做不好. We couldn't live without air and water. 没有空气和水,我们就不可能生存. [编辑本段] 介词英文缩写: 介词英文缩写是 prep.是英文 preposition 的缩写 [编辑本段] 介词用法口诀 早、午、晚要用 in,at 黎明、午夜、点与分. 年、月、年月、季节、周,阳光、灯、影、衣、冒 in. 将来时态 in...以后,小处 at 大处 in. 有形 with 无形 by,语言、单位、材料 in. 特征、方面与方式,心情成语惯用 in. 介词 at 和 to 表方向,攻击、位置、恶、善分. 日子、日期、年月日,星期加上早、午、晚, 收音、农场、值日 on,关于、基础、靠、著论. 着、罢、出售、偷、公、假,故意、支付、相反,准. 特定时日和"一……就",on 后常接动名词. 年、月、日加早、午、晚,of 之前 on 代 in.

步行、驴、马、玩笑 on,cab,carriage 则用 in. at 山脚、门口、在当前,速、温、日落、价、核心. 工具、和、同随 with,具有、独立、就、原因. 就……来说宾译主,对、有、方状、表细分. 海、陆、空、车、偶、被 by,单数、人类 know to man. this、that、tomorrow,yesterday,next、last、one. 接年、月、季、星期、周,介词省略已习惯. over、under 正上下,above、below 则不然, 若与数量词连用,混合使用亦无关.' beyond 超出、无、不能,against 靠着,对与反. besides,except 分内外,among 之内 along 沿. 同类比较 except,加 for 异类记心间. 原状 because of,、 owing to、 due to 表语形容词 under 后接修、建中,of、from 物、化分. before、after 表一点, ago、later 表一段. before 能接完成时,ago 过去极有限. since 以来 during 间,since 时态多变换. 与之相比 beside,除了 last but one. 复不定 for、找、价、原,对、给、段、去、为、作、赞. 快到、对、向 towards,工、学、军、城、北、上、南. but for 否定用虚拟,复合介词待后言. ing 型由于鉴,除了除外与包合.

之后、关于、在.方面,有关介词须记全. in 内 to 外表位置,山、水、国界 to 在前. 动词与介词(或副词)的搭配add…to 加到……上 agree with 同意(某人) arrive at(in) 到达 ask for 询问 begin…with 从……开始 believe in 相信 break into 闯入 break off 打断 break out 爆发 bring down 降低 bring in 引进 bring up 教育,培养 build up 建起 burn down 烧光 call back 回电话 call for 要求约请 call in 召来 call on 拜访 访问 care for 喜欢 carry on 继续开展 carry out 实行开展 check out 查明 结帐 clear up 整理,收拾 come about 发生,产生 come across (偶然)遇见 come out 出来 come to 共计 达到 compare…with 与……比较 compare to 比作 cut off 切断 date from 始于 depend on 依靠 devote to 献于 die out 灭亡 divide up 分配 dream of 梦想

fall off 下降 fall over 跌倒 feed on 以……为食 get down to 专心于 get through 通过 give in 让步,屈服

 
 

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